C Language

As the technology is increasing with a high speed new languages came into existence day by day. Now we are having multiple of languages like C, C++, Java, PHP, Perl, HTML, Python, Django, MySql etc. C is called the mother of all languages. These languages inherited many features from the C – language.C is the main programming language and it was developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs.And most of the system and applications software are developed in C-language. C is a structured programming languageandin C language many of the features were taken from an earlier language known as “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL). C language is written in Assembly language and is most widely used by core programmers who used to do system programming. All the operating systems are developed in Clike the Unix computer operating system.

C Standards:

C89/C90 standard – First standardized specification was developed by the American National Standards Institute in 1989. C89 and C90 standards refer to the same programming language.

C99 standard – Next revision was issued in 1999 that acquaint with new features like advanced data types and other changes.

Main Features of C-language are:

  • Efficiency and Effectiveness
  • Reliability
  • Interactivity
  • Modularity
  • Portability
  • Flexibility

Uses:

  • The C language is mainly used for system applications and softwares.
  • Spreadsheets
  • Compilers and Assemblers
  • Operating system development
  • Network drivers
  • Interpreters
  • Database systems
  • Graphics packages
  • Word processors

Start your programming now:

Character Set:

Set of letters and alphabet that are recognized by C-language are:

Upper Case letters:          A,B,C…Z

Lower Case letters:          A,b,c…z

Digits:                                   0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.

Special Characters:          . , <>& # – ( ) { } [ ] $ % | /* ^ ! ‘

Keywords:

Keywords are the words with fixed meaning and that cannot be changed.

int salary;

Here int is the keyword that indicates salary and salary is an integer type.

Other Keywords in C language are:

  • auto
  • double
  • int
  • struct
  • break
  • else
  • long
  • switch
  • case
  • enum
  • register
  • typedef
  • char
  • extern
  • return
  • union
  • continue
  • for
  • signed
  • void
  • do
  • if
  • static
  • while
  • default
  • goto
  • sizeof
  • volatile
  • const
  • float
  • short
  • unsigned

Additional Keywords for Borland are:

  • Casm
  • far
  • interrupt
  • pascal
  • near
  • huge
  • cdecl

Identifiers:

C entities are also known as identifiers. When C entities are given a unique name then they are known as identifiers to identify them during the execution of the program.

int salary;

int bamboo_tree;

Here, salary is an identifier which denotes a variable of integer type. Similarly, bamboo_tree is another identifier, which denotes another variable of integer type.

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